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There are three different types of patents for which an inventor may apply:
A Utility Patent is issued for a new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.
Design patents are issued to any person who has invented any new and non-obvious ornamental design for an article of manufacture.
As its name implies, a plant patent is issued to anyone who has invented or discovered and asexually reproduced any distinct and new variety of plant.