Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) was established in March 1957 as part of the United States Department of Commerce's Office of Technical Services, about six months before the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1. Acting as a unit within the Central Intelligence Agency, JPRS staffers prepared translations for the use of U.S. Government officials, various agencies, and the research and industrial communities. During the Cold War, the reports were primarily translations rather than analysis or commentary, with an emphasis on scientific and technical topics. Over time, however, that scope expanded to cover environmental concerns, world health issues, nuclear proliferation, economics, narcotics trafficking, and much more. Monographs, whole journals, individual journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, and eventually even some broadcasts were translated and published in the JPRS Reports.