The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition) sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only on the religion, but also on the believers and the countries in which they live. It embraces articles on distinguished Muslims of every era and origin, on tribes and dynasties, on crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities. In its geographical and historical scope it encompasses the old Arabo-Islamic empire, the Islamic countries of Iran, Central Asia, the Indian sub-continent and Indonesia, as well as the Ottoman Empire and all other Islamic countries. The Encyclopaedia of Islam is the most important reference tool on Islam presently available.